Role of the microbiome in swine respiratory disease.
Vet Microbiol. Mar 2017
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. In this review, we will discuss the factors that influence microbiome development in swine, associations of the microbiome with growth and immunity during infection with respiratory pathogens, and the role of the microbiome in PRRS. Taken together, modulation of the microbiome may be an alternative tool in the control of PRRS due to its intricate role in digestion of nutrients, systemic immunity, and response to pulmonary infections.