Microbiome and Anticancer Immunosurveillance.
Zitvogel L, Ayyoub M, Routy B, Kroemer G
Cell. Apr 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.03.001S0092-8674(16)30256-2
Anticancer immune responses can be considered a desirable form of autoimmunity that may be profoundly shaped by the microbiome. Here, we discuss evidence for the microbiome's influence on anti-tumor immunosurveillance, including those that are indirect and can act at a distance, and we put forward hypotheses regarding mechanisms of how these effects are implemented. These may involve cross-reactivity between microbial and tumor antigens shaping T cell repertoires and/or microbial products stimulating pattern recognition receptors that influence the type and intensity of immune responses. Understanding how the microbiome impacts natural cancer immunosurveillance as well as treatment-induced immune responses will pave the way for more effective therapies and prophylactics.